In the September 1965 war, Pakistan also had to contend with several world powers. India was at the front of the scene, but several major powers were at the back.
A large section of the international bureaucracy was busy in its reports to seduce the top officials including the US President that Pakistan wants a solution to the Kashmir issue in any case and the search for a solution could become a battleground.
Because India is not ready to give up its occupation of Kashmir, but many times before this war the United States has acknowledged that the Kashmir issue is a matter on the agenda of the United Nations, secondly as long as the issue is in accordance with UN resolutions. Until there is a solution, lasting peace in the region will be a dream.
Volume 25 of the US report “Foreign Relations of the United States” reveals that US leaders were in constant contact with former President Ayub and other leaders.
Later, US leaders did not say why former President Ayub Khan’s major breakthrough was not accepted by Indian leaders, why the Indian leadership backed down and who rejected the UN-proposed solution. Why the US administration and the United Nations acted tolerantly is not in any report.
A look at the highlights of 1965 will show that India was not alone in the September war, with the bureaucracy of many countries behind it, telling India, “What is Pakistan thinking, and this The United States will not allow its weapons to be used against India. “
It did not take long for India to realize that Pakistan might not be able to fight the war due to lack of weapons but it did not know that our army has succeeded in developing the military industry so much since the establishment of Pakistan. That she could fight without the need of any country. According to a US report, “Pak-India war could open up many fronts, but the Indian Army is interested in conquering Lahore.”
India did not know that thousands of martyrs like Major Aziz Bhatti would lay the bodies of the Indian Army on the security of Lahore and that is what happened. The Pakistan Army thwarted the nefarious intentions of the Indian Army.
The onset of Pak-India border tensions and the escalation of hostilities against India began in March 1965. On March 4, 1965, William Everley Harriman, Governor of the United States of America, met former Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri. Several other US and Indian officials were also present at the meeting in New Delhi.
He assured Shastri of US cooperation. During the meeting, Jha, an Indian official, raised the question, “Is the US President so busy that he is not even aware of the changes taking place in the global political scene?” “Undoubtedly, improving the economic situation is his first priority, but he is not unaware of world politics. Nuclear non-proliferation is also part of his priorities,” Harryman said. And then Harry Mann said something that did not take long for Shastri to understand that if India invaded Pakistan, the United States would not come to the aid of Pakistan. I am happy to share information with India, and it will continue to do so. ”
India had received a signal at the highest level that India could be given an open reprieve from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty because of China. He ended by saying, “Tell Shastri what other information he needs from the United States in this regard.”
“Even though we are at risk of a nuclear attack, India will not build an atomic bomb, but it is considering its own precautionary measures,” Shastri said. “The United States is ready to discuss India’s nuclear security issues,” he said. “Because Wilson was looking into the matter,” he said.
On this occasion, the United States gave another important signal to India, former US Governor Harry Mann refused to visit Pakistan, former President Ayub Peking (now Beijing) was going to go, so there was no time to go to Pakistan. At the same time, Shastri was invited to visit the United States. This was a turning point in Pak-US relations.
Later, India continued to support the United States by provoking the United States over China. The US administration was open to India in this matter. These leaders did not hesitate to admit that the Kashmir issue was the cause of Pak-India tensions. It can happen, but the leadership of both countries has the ability to deal with these issues. ”
Former Pakistani President Ayub Khan knew that he could not influence the growing inclination of US leaders towards India. So, in economic and military terms, he tried to get the country on its feet instead of giving it to the United States or any other country in need, in which he succeeded.
Meanwhile, a statement by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto caused an uproar in the United States, which had said that “the growing inclination of the United States towards India has made the Seato and Cento agreements meaningless.” Had initially relied on both agreements for US support. The United States has said that “these agreements are not against India.” This American attitude encouraged the Indian leadership.
In April, news of a run-off crash surfaced. The US administration was trying to convince its government that India was innocent and that Pakistan had taken its troops to the front lines. However, the Pakistan Army was stationed at its former positions. However, the world is well aware that even in the Pak-India border talks held in 1960, final talks could not be held on many parts of the border. So the Pakistani army set up outposts in its territory, India declared them its territory. Just as India has lost more than two dozen of its troops in an attempt to occupy Chinese territory these days, so did India’s war intentions in 1965.
At the northern corner of the Run of Kachh is a fort called Kanjarkot, which was submerged for several months of the year (June to November). Negotiations on this failed in 1960. The controversy started in January 1965.
The shadows of war were spreading on August 31. After failing to suppress the independence movement in occupied Kashmir, India had sought support from major world powers, which had to some extent been met. It would be difficult for the United Nations to intervene, and perhaps even for Britain. ” However, UN leaders also met and consulted with world leaders. On September 1, India brought armored vehicles to the front lines. In order to stop the ongoing struggle in occupied Kashmir, India increased the pressure on the Pakistani border. Due to the possible use of American-made Patton tanks by Pakistan, India once again sought help from the United States. And the then Indian Foreign Minister Soren Singh made a number of statements and wrote letters. He urged his government to “assure Shastri that in case of war, the United States would cut off all military aid to Pakistan.” Everyone was aware of the decision. India feared that “If the Kashmiri Mujahideen occupy Jammu-Srinagar Road, it will be difficult to maintain an aggressive occupation of Kashmir” (US leader Cisco).
After receiving favors from many quarters, on September 6, India attacked Pakistan from three fronts. The borders of Jassar, Lahore Mughalpura Sector, and Bedian Link Canal were opened. As usual, the vigilant Pakistan Army not only stopped the advance on all the three fronts but also captured several Indian border areas. India had sent 75 battalions into battle to capture Kharian but it still failed. The Kashmir issue, which has been the prelude to three wars, still demands the attention of the United Nations. The violation of human rights in this occupied territory has reached its climax. The US files also state that “lasting peace in the region is difficult until the Kashmir issue is resolved.”