What is climate change? How will we be affected?


One hundred countries have signed an agreement to stop global warming in the African country of Rwanda.

The average global temperature is currently 15 degrees Celsius, but geological records show that it has been declining in the past.

However, the current temperature changes are happening very fast compared to the changes in the past. Scientists are concerned that this rapid change in human hands will have serious impacts on Earth’s climate in the future.

What is the greenhouse effect?

The greenhouse effect is called the natural process by which the earth emits energy from the sun. The heat from the sun is reflected back into space after being hit by the surface of the earth in the form of light, but gases in the air absorb some part of the heat, leaving the bottom of the air and the earth’s surface gets warmer.

If this had not been the case, the land would have been 30 degrees cooler at that time, and it would have been very difficult to live on.

Humans are boosting the natural greenhouse effect by inducing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through factories and agriculture, leading to rising temperatures, scientists say. This process is called global warming or climate change.

The most important are greenhouse gas water vapors, but they remain in the atmosphere for only a few days. In comparison, carbon dioxide lasts longer.

Humans are increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by burning natural fuels and cutting forests that absorb carbon dioxide. In addition, it is also releasing nitrous oxide and methane, but their overall effect is minimal.

After the industrial revolution of 1750, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased by 30%, while the amount of methane increased by 140%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at that time has never been in the last eight million years.

What is the evidence of global warming?

Temperature records show that the average temperature in the world has increased by 0.8 degrees in the last hundred years. This is a 0.6 percent increase over the last three decades.

Data from satellites show that sea levels have risen three millimeters annually in recent decades. The main reason for this is that the water is heated and spread.

However, another reason is that the glaciers and polar ice layers in the mountains are melting. In photos taken from satellites, it can be seen that the polar ice has decreased dramatically.

In addition, the behavior of animals and plants has changed. Flowers now open prematurely and migration of animals has also changed.

Global warming?

There has been considerable debate in recent years that global warming has stopped. Experts say there has been no significant global warming since 1998, though carbon dioxide emissions continue to rise.

Scientists offer different explanations for this:

• Reduced energy from the sun

• Reducing the amount of vapor in the atmosphere

• To absorb the heat of the sea

However, there are disagreements as to what the underlying mechanism of this disruption is.

Environmental scientists say that the stagnation occurred at only one component of climate change, the average temperature of the ground surface, but another factor, the melting of the ice and the change in behavior of plants and animals, shows that the earth is still warmer. Is going away

How hot will the earth be in the future?

The International Panel on Climate Change submitted an estimate in 2013 that made various predictions based on computer models. They show that by the end of the 21st century, global temperatures are likely to rise 1.5 degrees.

Two degrees of heat is generally regarded as the threshold of dangerous global change.

Even if we immediately stop greenhouse gas emissions, scientists say their effects will continue for a long time as different parts of the ecosystem, such as layers of water and ice, react to temperature changes. It takes hundreds of years to show.

How will we be affected?

The full effects are uncertain, however, and it is estimated that the supply of clean water will be reduced, major changes in food production will occur, and large-scale floods, storms, famine and heat waves increase. Deaths can happen.

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